My first 8TB Seagate Drive

Just for memories I kept the dmesg output of when I hotplugged this drive into my LSI Logic SAS2008 based card.  For those who are wondering any chipset that is 3TB capable will work fine for 8+ TB drives.  In fact I found if I plugged this drive into a chipset that didn’t support 3TB, not only did it not work but even most Linux machines just literally froze (I expected that the drive would just show itself as being 2TB but this was not the case).

The magic in Linux that happens when you hotplug this 8TB Seagate drive:

Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.801829] scsi 6:0:0:0: Direct-Access     ATA      ST8000AS0002-1NA AR17 PQ: 0 ANSI: 6
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.801857] scsi 6:0:0:0: SATA: handle(0x0009), sas_addr(0x4433221107000000), phy(7), device_name(0x0000000000000000)
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.801866] scsi 6:0:0:0: SATA: enclosure_logical_id(0x500605b0079b94b0), slot(7)
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.801979] scsi 6:0:0:0: atapi(n), ncq(y), asyn_notify(n), smart(y), fua(y), sw_preserve(y)
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.801988] scsi 6:0:0:0: qdepth(32), tagged(1), simple(0), ordered(0), scsi_level(7), cmd_que(1)
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.805791] sd 6:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg7 type 0
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.806349] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] 15628053168 512-byte logical blocks: (8.00 TB/7.27 TiB)
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.806362] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] 4096-byte physical blocks
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.950714] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] Write Protect is off
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.950730] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] Mode Sense: 7f 00 10 08
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110723.952804] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, supports DPO and FUA
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110724.116071]  sdg: unknown partition table
Jun  3 22:46:24 mybox kernel: [5110724.281364] sd 6:0:0:0: [sdg] Attached SCSI disk

Oops I used fdisk, but it can’t support an 8TB disk so instead use gdisk
sudo fdisk /dev/sdg

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x9f3ad455.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won’t be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: The size of this disk is 8.0 TB (8001563222016 bytes).
DOS partition table format can not be used on drives for volumes
larger than (2199023255040 bytes) for 512-byte sectors. Use parted(1) and GUID
partition table format (GPT).

The device presents a logical sector size that is smaller than
the physical sector size. Aligning to a physical sector (or optimal
I/O) size boundary is recommended, or performance may be impacted.

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdg: 8001.6 GB, 8001563222016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 972801 cylinders, total 15628053168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x9f3ad455

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): q

gdisk supports 3TB+ drives no problem and the interface is the same as fdisk:
sudo fdisk /dev/sdg

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x9f3ad455.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won’t be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: The size of this disk is 8.0 TB (8001563222016 bytes).
DOS partition table format can not be used on drives for volumes
larger than (2199023255040 bytes) for 512-byte sectors. Use parted(1) and GUID
partition table format (GPT).

The device presents a logical sector size that is smaller than
the physical sector size. Aligning to a physical sector (or optimal
I/O) size boundary is recommended, or performance may be impacted.

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdg: 8001.6 GB, 8001563222016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 972801 cylinders, total 15628053168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x9f3ad455

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): q
GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.8

Partition table scan:
MBR: not present
BSD: not present
APM: not present
GPT: not present

Creating new GPT entries.

Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/sdg: 15628053168 sectors, 7.3 TiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 99C74283-3F66-4AEB-B427-210253274010
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 15628053134
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 15628053101 sectors (7.3 TiB)

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name

Command (? for help): n
Partition number (1-128, default 1): p
First sector (34-15628053134, default = 2048) or {+-}size{KMGTP}: 1
First sector (34-15628053134, default = 2048) or {+-}size{KMGTP}:
Last sector (2048-15628053134, default = 15628053134) or {+-}size{KMGTP}:
Current type is ‘Linux filesystem’
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): L
0700 Microsoft basic data  0c01 Microsoft reserved    2700 Windows RE
4100 PowerPC PReP boot     4200 Windows LDM data      4201 Windows LDM metadata
7501 IBM GPFS              7f00 ChromeOS kernel       7f01 ChromeOS root
7f02 ChromeOS reserved     8200 Linux swap            8300 Linux filesystem
8301 Linux reserved        8302 Linux /home           8400 Intel Rapid Start
8e00 Linux LVM             a500 FreeBSD disklabel     a501 FreeBSD boot
a502 FreeBSD swap          a503 FreeBSD UFS           a504 FreeBSD ZFS
a505 FreeBSD Vinum/RAID    a580 Midnight BSD data     a581 Midnight BSD boot
a582 Midnight BSD swap     a583 Midnight BSD UFS      a584 Midnight BSD ZFS
a585 Midnight BSD Vinum    a800 Apple UFS             a901 NetBSD swap
a902 NetBSD FFS            a903 NetBSD LFS            a904 NetBSD concatenated
a905 NetBSD encrypted      a906 NetBSD RAID           ab00 Apple boot
af00 Apple HFS/HFS+        af01 Apple RAID            af02 Apple RAID offline
af03 Apple label           af04 AppleTV recovery      af05 Apple Core Storage
be00 Solaris boot          bf00 Solaris root          bf01 Solaris /usr & Mac Z
bf02 Solaris swap          bf03 Solaris backup        bf04 Solaris /var
bf05 Solaris /home         bf06 Solaris alternate se  bf07 Solaris Reserved 1
bf08 Solaris Reserved 2    bf09 Solaris Reserved 3    bf0a Solaris Reserved 4
bf0b Solaris Reserved 5    c001 HP-UX data            c002 HP-UX service
ea00 Freedesktop $BOOT     eb00 Haiku BFS             ed00 Sony system partitio
ef00 EFI System            ef01 MBR partition scheme  ef02 BIOS boot partition
Press the <Enter> key to see more codes: fd
fb00 VMWare VMFS           fb01 VMWare reserved       fc00 VMWare kcore crash p
fd00 Linux RAID
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): p
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): w
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300): q
Hex code or GUID (L to show codes, Enter = 8300):
Changed type of partition to ‘Linux filesystem’

Command (? for help): p
Disk /dev/sdg: 15628053168 sectors, 7.3 TiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 99C74283-3F66-4AEB-B427-210253274010
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 15628053134
Partitions will be aligned on 2048-sector boundaries
Total free space is 2014 sectors (1007.0 KiB)

Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
1            2048     15628053134   7.3 TiB     8300  Linux filesystem

Command (? for help): wq

Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING
PARTITIONS!!

Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): y
OK; writing new GUID partition table (GPT) to /dev/sdg.
The operation has completed successfully.

After exiting gdisk I do a quick and basic read performance test but find it strikingly accurate of all the disks I’ve tested:

Read performance of 196MB/s was far greater than

userlogin@mybox:~$ sudo dd if=/dev/sdg of=/dev/null bs=1M count=10000
10000+0 records in
10000+0 records out
10485760000 bytes (10 GB) copied, 53.3865 s, 196 MB/s

sudo mdadm –create /dev/md8 –level 10 –raid-devices=2 missing /dev/sdg1
mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata
mdadm: array /dev/md8 started.
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1] [raid10] [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4]
md8 : active raid10 sdg1[1]
7813894144 blocks super 1.2 2 near-copies [2/1] [_U]

md125 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdd2[1] sdc2[0]
20490816 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md126 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 sdd1[0] sdc1[1]
943730240 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md127 : active raid10 sdf1[2] sde1[0]
732442112 blocks super 1.2 2 near-copies [2/2] [UU]

md2 : active raid10 sda3[2] sdb3[0]
709372928 blocks super 1.2 512K chunks 2 far-copies [2/2] [UU]
bitmap: 5/6 pages [20KB], 65536KB chunk

md0 : active raid1 sda1[2] sdb1[0]
20955008 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[1] sdb2[0]
2097088 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ pvcreate /dev/md8
/dev/mapper/control: open failed: Permission denied
Failure to communicate with kernel device-mapper driver.
WARNING: Running as a non-root user. Functionality may be unavailable.
Device /dev/md8 not found (or ignored by filtering).
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo pvcreate /dev/md8
Physical volume “/dev/md8” successfully created
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo vgcreate backups /dev/md8
Volume group “backups” successfully created
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ vgdisplay
/dev/mapper/control: open failed: Permission denied
Failure to communicate with kernel device-mapper driver.
WARNING: Running as a non-root user. Functionality may be unavailable.
No volume groups found
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo vgdisplay
— Volume group —
VG Name               backups
System ID
Format                lvm2
Metadata Areas        1
Metadata Sequence No  1
VG Access             read/write
VG Status             resizable
MAX LV                0
Cur LV                0
Open LV               0
Max PV                0
Cur PV                1
Act PV                1
VG Size               7.28 TiB
PE Size               4.00 MiB
Total PE              1907688
Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0
Free  PE / Size       1907688 / 7.28 TiB
VG UUID               DwxSxL-UmcV-TyjM-TUa1-ef4w-lrK5-cipxiI

one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkdir /mnt/md8
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo vi /etc/fstab
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext
mkfs.ext2     mkfs.ext3     mkfs.ext4     mkfs.ext4dev
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/b
block/         bsg/           btrfs-control  bus/
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/b
block/         bsg/           btrfs-control  bus/
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/block/
1:0    1:11   1:15   1:5    1:9    7:0    7:4    8:0    8:18   8:32   8:48   8:64   8:96   9:125  9:8
1:1    1:12   1:2    1:6    259:0  7:1    7:5    8:1    8:19   8:33   8:49   8:65   8:97   9:126
1:10   1:13   1:3    1:7    259:1  7:2    7:6    8:16   8:2    8:34   8:50   8:80   9:0    9:127
11:0   1:14   1:4    1:8    259:2  7:3    7:7    8:17   8:3    8:35   8:51   8:81   9:1    9:2
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/
Display all 249 possibilities? (y or n)
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/
Display all 249 possibilities? (y or n)
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/b
block/         bsg/           btrfs-control  bus/
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/lv^C
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo lvcreate -L 7.28TB backups -n backuplv
Rounding up size to full physical extent 7.28 TiB
Volume group “backups” has insufficient free space (1907688 extents): 1908409 required.
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo lvcreate -L 7.2TB backups -n backuplv
Rounding up size to full physical extent 7.20 TiB
Logical volume “backuplv” created
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo lvcreate -L 7.26TB backups -n backuplv
Rounding up size to full physical extent 7.26 TiB
Logical volume “backuplv” already exists in volume group “backups”
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/b
backups/       block/         bsg/           btrfs-control  bus/
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/b
backups/       block/         bsg/           btrfs-control  bus/
one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/backups/backuplv
mke2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=128 blocks, Stripe width=128 blocks
241594368 inodes, 1932735488 blocks
96636774 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
58983 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
4096 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968,
102400000, 214990848, 512000000, 550731776, 644972544

Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

sudo smartctl -a /dev/sdg
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.16.0-38-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     ST8000AS0002-1NA17Z
Serial Number:    Z840F70X
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 090ae82a1
Firmware Version: AR17
User Capacity:    8,001,563,222,016 bytes [8.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    5980 rpm
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   ACS-2, ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 3b
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.1, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Fri Jun  3 23:08:40 2016 PDT
SMART support is: Available – device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82)    Offline data collection activity
was completed without error.
Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0)    The previous self-test routine completed
without error or no self-test has ever
been run.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:         (    0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:              (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
Suspend Offline collection upon new
command.
Offline surface scan supported.
Self-test supported.
Conveyance Self-test supported.
Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)    Saves SMART data before entering
power-saving mode.
Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)    Error logging supported.
General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:      ( 953) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   2) minutes.
SCT capabilities:            (0x30b5)    SCT Status supported.
SCT Feature Control supported.
SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   112   100   006    Pre-fail  Always       –       48250328
3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   098   098   000    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       –       2
5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   010    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   100   253   030    Pre-fail  Always       –       29055
9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       –       2
183 Runtime_Bad_Block       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       –       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   063   063   045    Old_age   Always       –       37 (Min/Max 29/37)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       1
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       2
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   037   040   000    Old_age   Always       –       37 (0 21 0 0 0)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x001a   112   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       48250328
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      –       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       170162309300224
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       406660
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       20496814

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
1        0        0  Not_testing
2        0        0  Not_testing
3        0        0  Not_testing
4        0        0  Not_testing
5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

one@Opteron2419:~/Downloads$ sudo smartctl -a /dev/sdg
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.16.0-38-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     ST8000AS0002-1NA17Z
Serial Number:    Z840F70X
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 090ae82a1
Firmware Version: AR17
User Capacity:    8,001,563,222,016 bytes [8.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    5980 rpm
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   ACS-2, ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 3b
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.1, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Fri Jun  3 23:08:43 2016 PDT
SMART support is: Available – device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82)    Offline data collection activity
was completed without error.
Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0)    The previous self-test routine completed
without error or no self-test has ever
been run.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:         (    0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:              (0x7b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
Suspend Offline collection upon new
command.
Offline surface scan supported.
Self-test supported.
Conveyance Self-test supported.
Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)    Saves SMART data before entering
power-saving mode.
Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)    Error logging supported.
General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:      ( 953) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   2) minutes.
SCT capabilities:            (0x30b5)    SCT Status supported.
SCT Feature Control supported.
SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   112   100   006    Pre-fail  Always       –       48382752
3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   098   098   000    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       –       2
5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   010    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   100   253   030    Pre-fail  Always       –       29186
9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       –       0
12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       –       2
183 Runtime_Bad_Block       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       –       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   063   063   045    Old_age   Always       –       37 (Min/Max 29/37)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       1
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       2
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   037   040   000    Old_age   Always       –       37 (0 21 0 0 0)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x001a   112   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       48382752
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      –       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       –       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       182961311842304
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       410761
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      –       20496814

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
1        0        0  Not_testing
2        0        0  Not_testing
3        0        0  Not_testing
4        0        0  Not_testing
5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

sudo badblocks /dev/backups/backuplv
badblocks: Value too large for defined data type invalid end block (7730941952): must be 32-bit value

How To Make Your Office IT/Computer Hardware More Green

As part of doing my part for the environment I consolidated a lot of other server/computer hardware in my office into a low-power, quiet and cool running Dedicated AMD Opteron Desktop Workstation Server from scratch.  It has kept my office cooler and quieter, all while saving on power and more importantly the environment.  I should have added that I also reduced the number of hard disks from several if not dozens in my office, to just 6 disks (all of them larger I believe 4-8TB each).

But I wanted to take it a step further and I admit I was also motivated each morning by the unfriendly smells of burning PCB no matter what I did.  It’s an exercise in efficiency, savings, environment and your own health and sanity.

In my office I have a gigabit 24-port rack mount switch and 42U server rack where I store parts and other items for testing and development.  Believe it or not but this switch seems to have made an incredible amount of heat and even worse, the burning PCB smell which can’t be healthy and it still baffles me because its fan is working just fine and the unit doesn’t get that hot.

This is where the waste part came in, the thing is that under my Desk I have a small gigabit switch for all of my other devices such as VOIP, phone, printer, laptop, etc… and the 24-port switch only has 4 or 5 ports active.  I’ve kept the 24-port on the rack and ready to plug in and I just switched in a humble but efficient 5-port gigabit switch which has reduced heat and the bad PCB smell in the office.

One thing I admit that I have done (or rather haven’t) is enabled any kind of sleep mode for my Desktop workstation and this is because it is nearly always active and I like to remotely connect to it at odd times of the day.  But still this current Opteron workstation runs cooler than my previous labyrinth of servers and workstations that were active so I can actually hear again.  By consolidating most services into a single unit with virtual servers you can often eliminate the majority of power usage which primarily comes from hot and power hungry CPUs.  This is one reason why I haven’t upgraded to newer Opteron architecture, yes you get more cores per CPU but the power usage ends up being more than what I am into now and is no more efficient and far exceeds my current needs.

Personal Best Hosting Advice for Shared, VPS and Dedicated Servers

Since one of our product offerings is offering hosting I’m often asked by friends and family which company they should use and where they should host, and which host is the best for their shared hosting, VPS or Dedicated Server.

Surprising to some the answer is not always, host with compevo but based on their actual needs and goals.   If someone needs to host their site in Australia or another location we do not offer, I’m not going to suggest they host elsewhere unless there is a good reason or actual business case for it, or if they have a niche we don’t cover, I always recommend they find a niche provider for their industry and usually the company I recommend will not be the typical one most have heard of.

The biggest issue I find trying to help people is getting friends and family to understand what they need and to get the actual requirements from them.  In the case that they can’t describe what they want then I’ll try to guide them.

For example I have a friend from Australia who has clients that are mainly from North America and Europe but said he wanted to host in Australia.  I told him not to host in Australia as things tend to load a bit slower to most areas from Australia as its not on a main fiber route (eg. multiple routes with lots of traffic transiting since Australia is isolated by the ocean and has no other country physically connected to it).  It would only make sense to host in Australia if most of your clientel were from Australia.  I suggested he host in North America because it was a middle ground compared to Europe, specifically the mid or east which can provide low ping to most of Europe (in many cases around 100ms), and yet Asia and the rest of the world has excellent connectivity here too.

What surprises me about the questions I get is that a lot of people incorrectly assume they need a powerhouse of a server with loads of RAM to host their website.  Unless you have a large amount of traffic that’s not going to be an issue for most sites so I try to save them money.  In a case like the above I would normally recommend a VPS in Canada or the US as long as privacy is not a primary concern.  If data security and privacy is of the utmost concern I usually recommend Hong Kong, China or Russia depending on the type of the business and if it has fierce competitors in the region it will be hosting.

Depending on what they are after and what they need,when I recommend compevo here’s where I’ve usually sent them:

compevo.cn for VPS in Hong Kong, China, Singapore and Dedicated Servers in China

compevo.com for VPS in Hong Kong near Mainland China

compevo.com Dedicated Servers on Linux and Windows in the USA with premium bandwidth

 

Windows VPS Server 2008/2012 VPS (Virtual Private Server) are too RAM intensive

I’ll let the image for this post do the talking.  It is a freshly installed Windows 2008 R2 Datacenter VPS that I quickly provisioned in my test lab (for testing :)).  The only thing installed was ClamAV/ClamWIN and Firefox was open with a single tab.

However the memory usage itself was coming from something less obvious.  This server boots up and initially uses “697MB” of RAM (quite hefty in my opinion at least compared to the lightweight world of Linux).  From that point it only goes downhill in terms of memory usage.

The memory usage ballooned quickly to nearly 1.2GB and was steadily climbing all because of Windows Update doing updates.

This is staggering because many VPS Plans and providers will allow you to run Windows 2008 Server on as little as 512MB of RAM and as we can see below 1GB of RAM isn’t even enough.  In fact it could be argued that the real minimum is probably at least 2GB for basic usage (which I define here is just running Windows Update!).

Windows poses unique challenges for virtualization environments and hosts because even a single Windows VPS will start swapping easily with less than 2GB of RAM.  The problem with swapping of course is high and constant disk IO/bandwidth being consumed by a single VPS.

As shown in the pic above it doesn’t take much to get into high RAM usage territory and is also likely why some feel Windows does not run well in a virtual environment.  In my experience it runs lightning fast and at bare-metal speed but it won’t seem that way if someone tries running it with less than 2GB of RAM.

OpenBSD Install Howto Guided Experience

Download the OpenBSD 5.8 x64 install .iso from compevo mirror

Just a note that on KVM OpenBSD runs very slow in terms of disk access for some reason (it takes forever to even format the partitions).

Any BSD is in my opinion one of the most reliable operating system period and one of the most secure, and OpenBSD is no exception.

It does not have a fancy installer but is dead, simple and minimalist, it’s about efficiency, security and stability first.

Boot the OpenBSD ISO

OpenBSD-Install-1

Press I for install or A for auto install

I recommend I because the install fails straight away if no DHCP lease is detected (very common in many remote environments or datacenters of course).

OpenBSD-Install-2

So make sure you press I for normal install

Choose your hostname

OpenBSD-Install-3

Configure more options

OpenBSD-Install-4

Partition Layout

OpenBSD-Install-5

OpenBSD-Install-6

 

OpenBSD-Install-7

 

OpenBSD-Install-9

OpenBSD-Install-10

Will the PC and Server Based computing become obsolete?

There has been much debate over the years and it’s easy to see there is a lot of momentum and gravitation towards smart phones and tablets because they are convenient and are capable of many things a PC is.

The stats show the following trends in my opinion: http://www.statista.com/statistics/272595/global-shipments-forecast-for-tablets-laptops-and-desktop-pcs/

The laptop market peaked in 2011 at 209 million units and is projected to be 170.4 million in 2019.

The laptop PC market peaked on or before 2010 at 201 million units and is projected to be 170.4million in 2019.

Tablets have had amazing growth from 19 million units in 2010 to 269.4 million projected in 2019 with a peak of 407million projected in 2017.

The numbers of PCs and Desktops show some variation but are not an immediate indication that people will stop buying them.  Certainly the tablet market has probably eaten into some of the laptop market.  If anything the largest drop or decline is being forecast for the tablet market.  I think part of the reason sales are slowing in the PC market is not because people are not using them, but quite honestly even old computers are capable of doing most tasks people want them to so there may be no need to upgrade.

With that said, I believe most professionals will still prefer a PC for many uses.  Personally speaking I can get a lot more done, more quickly with a PC.  I also feel PC’s are more secure than smart phones because with the phones, we never know what is in the ROMs or what potential security flaws are waiting for us.

When using a Unix based open-source PC there is reasonable assurance to privacy and security compared to a tablet.

The server side is something that is not only, not declining but growing and ironically this demand is being fed by a lot  of smartphone users putting their data into Cloud based services.  Datacenter services have not fundamentally changed in a long time, there have been experiments in cooling and green options but whatever the improvements and format, server based computing is here to stay long into the future.

PC based computing does appear to be on the decline and may continue to decline as more and more new generations grow up almost exclusively on an iOS or Android device.  However I do not think it will ever disappear in the foreseeable future and the server side has a long way to go.

Rebooting a Linux Dedicated server with no hard drives from the shell

I just thought I would finally test this so I simulated a complete RAID array failure by pulling all of the drives at once.

This results in an input/output error when trying to do anything so the question is can you still reboot in this situation?

[root@testserver /]# reboot
-bash: /sbin/reboot: Input/output error
[root@testserver /]# shutdown -rn now
-bash: /sbin/shutdown: Input/output error
[root@testserver /]# shutdown
-bash: /sbin/shutdown: Input/output error
[root@testserver /]# uptime
13:47:10 up 41 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00

Reboot by sending commands directly to /proc

[root@testserver /]# echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq
[root@testserver /]# echo b > /proc/sysrq-trigger

And sure enough the server rebooted, it could be handy if someone has a remote server without remote hands or remote-reboot (in this case we have both on-site so there was no risk and this was a test server).

What dmesg looks like when the drives are removed and arrays degraded:
[  559.302943] ata3: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x1810000 action 0xe frozen
[  559.302988] ata3: SError: { PHYRdyChg LinkSeq TrStaTrns }
[  559.303048] ata3: hard resetting link
[  559.303054] ata3: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  560.024048] ata3: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  565.024048] ata3: hard resetting link
[  565.024054] ata3: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  565.327053] ata3: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  565.327064] ata3: limiting SATA link speed to 1.5 Gbps
[  570.327045] ata3: hard resetting link
[  570.327050] ata3: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  570.630048] ata3: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  570.630059] ata3.00: disabled
[  570.630078] ata3: EH complete
[  570.630087] sd 2:0:0:0: rejecting I/O to offline device
[  570.630104] ata3.00: detaching (SCSI 2:0:0:0)
[  570.630125] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] killing request
[  570.630153] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  570.630159] md/raid10:md2: Disk failure on sda2, disabling device.
[  570.630162] md/raid10:md2: Operation continuing on 1 devices.
[  570.630257] end_request: I/O error, dev sda, sector 58605128
[  570.630291] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  570.633517] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Synchronizing SCSI cache
[  570.633651] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda]  Result: hostbyte=DID_BAD_TARGET driverbyte=DRIVER_OK
[  570.633659] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Stopping disk
[  570.633680] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] START_STOP FAILED
[  570.633684] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda]  Result: hostbyte=DID_BAD_TARGET driverbyte=DRIVER_OK
[  570.655206] RAID10 conf printout:
[  570.655210]  — wd:1 rd:2
[  570.655214]  disk 0, wo:0, o:1, dev:sdb2
[  570.655217]  disk 1, wo:1, o:0, dev:sda2
[  570.659025] RAID10 conf printout:
[  570.659029]  — wd:1 rd:2
[  570.659032]  disk 0, wo:0, o:1, dev:sdb2
[  570.659313] md: md1 still in use.
[  570.738752] md: md2 still in use.
[  570.739106] md/raid1:md1: Disk failure on sda3, disabling device.
[  570.739109] md/raid1:md1: Operation continuing on 1 devices.
[  570.739380] md/raid10:md0: Disk failure on sda1, disabling device.
[  570.739382] md/raid10:md0: Operation continuing on 1 devices.
[  570.739412] md: unbind<sda2>
[  570.747449] md: export_rdev(sda2)
[  570.868144] RAID1 conf printout:
[  570.868148]  — wd:1 rd:2
[  570.868168]  disk 0, wo:0, o:1, dev:sdb3
[  570.868175]  disk 1, wo:1, o:0, dev:sda3
[  570.873025] RAID1 conf printout:
[  570.873029]  — wd:1 rd:2
[  570.873032]  disk 0, wo:0, o:1, dev:sdb3
[  570.999292] md: unbind<sda3>
[  571.007119] md: export_rdev(sda3)
[  573.633246] ata4: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x1810000 action 0xe frozen
[  573.633292] ata4: SError: { PHYRdyChg LinkSeq TrStaTrns }
[  573.633331] ata4: hard resetting link
[  573.633335] ata4: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  574.354052] ata4: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  579.354032] ata4: hard resetting link
[  579.354037] ata4: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  579.657041] ata4: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  579.657052] ata4: limiting SATA link speed to 1.5 Gbps
[  584.657032] ata4: hard resetting link
[  584.657038] ata4: nv: skipping hardreset on occupied port
[  584.960047] ata4: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
[  584.960058] ata4.00: disabled
[  584.960076] ata4: EH complete
[  584.960086] sd 3:0:0:0: rejecting I/O to offline device
[  584.960094] ata4.00: detaching (SCSI 3:0:0:0)
[  584.960124] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] killing request
[  584.960148] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  584.960220] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 58605120
[  584.960265] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  584.960322] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 58605128
[  584.960357] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  584.960393] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 58605128
[  584.960428] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  584.962495] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Synchronizing SCSI cache
[  584.962765] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb]  Result: hostbyte=DID_BAD_TARGET driverbyte=DRIVER_OK
[  584.962772] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] Stopping disk
[  584.962786] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 524292
[  584.962805] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb] START_STOP FAILED
[  584.962810] sd 3:0:0:0: [sdb]  Result: hostbyte=DID_BAD_TARGET driverbyte=DRIVER_OK
[  584.962824] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.962841] end_request: I/O error, dev sdb, sector 58605128
[  584.962877] md: super_written gets error=-5, uptodate=0
[  584.962921] md: md1 still in use.
[  584.962931] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 524293
[  584.963007] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963020] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1048646
[  584.963095] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963104] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1048647
[  584.963179] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963188] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1048648
[  584.963274] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963280] md: md2 still in use.
[  584.963299] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1048694
[  584.963381] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963391] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1056863
[  584.963468] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963478] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 1056864
[  584.963553] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963562] Buffer I/O error on device md2, logical block 6299690
[  584.963635] lost page write due to I/O error on md2
[  584.963800] Aborting journal on device md2-8.
[  584.963836] EXT4-fs error (device md2) in ext4_delete_inode: Readonly filesystem
[  584.963868] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 987 pages, ino 28972747; err -30
[  584.963877] md: super_written gets error=-19, uptodate=0
[  584.963883]
[  584.963888] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 7896 pages, ino 28972690; err -30
[  584.963893]
[  584.963953] EXT4-fs warning (device md2): ext4_end_bio: I/O error writing to inode 28972747 (size 36864 starting block 689771)
[  584.964303] JBD2: I/O error detected when updating journal superblock for md2-8.
[  584.964309] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_journal_start_sb: Detected aborted journal
[  584.964316] EXT4-fs (md2): Remounting filesystem read-only
[  584.972785] md0: detected capacity change from 30005002240 to 0
[  584.972794] md: md0 stopped.
[  584.972810] md: unbind<sdb1>
[  584.979298] md: export_rdev(sdb1)
[  584.979344] md: unbind<sda1>
[  584.987280] md: export_rdev(sda1)
[  585.165084] md: super_written gets error=-19, uptodate=0
[  585.165102] md: super_written gets error=-19, uptodate=0
[  589.309845] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  589.963162] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 263495; err -30
[  589.963314]
[  599.310238] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  604.963046] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 262464; err -30
[  604.963153]
[  609.310592] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  614.963071] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 28186168; err -30
[  614.963176]
[  614.963181] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28186171; err -30
[  614.963298]
[  614.963301] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28972747; err -30
[  614.963405]
[  614.963408] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28972690; err -30
[  614.963507]
[  619.310906] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  619.963133] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 263495; err -30
[  619.963244]
[  629.311267] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  634.963038] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 262464; err -30
[  634.963144]
[  639.311561] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  644.963069] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 28186168; err -30
[  644.963172]
[  644.963176] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28186171; err -30
[  644.963288]
[  644.963291] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28972747; err -30
[  644.963395]
[  644.963397] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 8192 pages, ino 28972690; err -30
[  644.963499]
[  649.311846] EXT4-fs error (device md2): ext4_find_entry: reading directory #262476 offset 0
[  649.963202] EXT4-fs (md2): ext4_da_writepages: jbd2_start: 1024 pages, ino 263495; err -30
[  649.963319]
[  653.202216] ata3: exception Emask 0x10 SAct 0x0 SErr 0x50000 action 0xe frozen
[  653.202317] ata3: SError: { PHYRdyChg CommWake }
[  653.202379] ata3: hard resetting link

 

Green Computing with a Server Based Desktop Workstation

A lot of people whether friends or family wonder what kind of computer I have and usually say something along the lines of “Areeb must have a supercomputer as a PC”.  Most people are surprised when it couldn’t be further from the truth, and even more, I have no need for a more powerful computer.

A few months ago I decided to upgrade from a self-built AMD Phenom Quad Core CPU with 8GB of RAM and RAID 1 x 1TB hard drives, not because I needed the CPU power, but because I wanted more RAM and grew tired of maintaining so many physical computers in my personal space.

Prior to this I used to have a separate server for all of my testing, VPS and another for filebackups and media.  But it really was quite the waste to use so much extra power when those other systems sat mainly idle.

My solution was to make a hybrid, Desktop workstation on my own (I always prefer to build my own systems).  I must admit I didn’t have an exact plan and it was more of a work in progress when I first started.

My Home Made Workstation

I have used servers based on the AMD Opteron 2400 series and loved them because of their low wattage and high cores.  Almost any of them would give me more power than I had before (which I didn’t need).

I settled on a brand new Coolermaster Case which supported dual power supplies, and more importantly EATX server motherboards.

AMD Opteron Tyan/HP Server Based Motherboard:

I’ve always been a fan of AMD so I couldn’t resist when I came across this model.

HP XW9400 but is really a rebranded Tyan S2915E (I love Tyan products because I find they are incredibly stable and long-lasting, no Asus Desktop product can compare in my opinion).

What’s to love about the Tyan S2915E/XW9400 Motherboard?

 

AreebXW9400build

  • Dual CPU Sockets (I installed dual 6-core AMD 2419EE to keep the power low, at just 45W each for a total of 12 cores)
  • 8 RAM sockets (4 per CPU with support for up to 64GB DDR2 ECC RAM)
  • SAS/SATA Controller (LSI 1068E) with 8 ports
  • SATA Controller (MCP55) with 6 ports.
  • Dual NVIDIA 1gbit NICs
  • Dual PCI-E x16 Graphics Slots
  • PCI-X (2) PCI-X 64-bit 133/100MHz slots
    PCI (1) PCI 32-bit slot
  • Onboard Audio

Can be flashed with Tyan firmware and in case of a bad flash it has a standard ROM chip that can be replaced and/or flashed even from Linux (using Flashrom).

The Build

Since I bought a brand new HP XW9400 motherboard there were some challenges.  First of all it came with standoffs meant for the HP XW9400 case but are completely useless for a standard EATX case.  To make it worse they are TORX screws with a security bit in the middle.  Fortunately it is fairly easy to break the security bits off using a flat head screw driver.

Power Supply is not a standard ATX, I bought one used from the XW8400 (interestingly enough the ones branded as XW9400 are missing the memory power connector so will not work).

Compatible power supply: Delta DPS-825AB B 800W Power Supply 405351-003

What I like about this power supply is that it is incredibly quiet.

Non-compatbile power supply: Delta DPS1050CB 1050W HP P/N 440860-001 (SPARE) 442038-001

CPU Fans & Heatsink are Proprietary (even the power connectors are)

You have to buy the correct HP part# for these but it is worth the money, after 117 days of uptime both heatsinks are luke warm to the touch (no need for liquid cooling).

CPUs

2 x AMD Opteron 2419EE (45 Watts and 6-cores each clocked at 1.8ghz)

RAM
8 x 4GB PC2-5300P ECC Registered RAM Qimonda

It is way too much power for me

As you can see even with a load of nearly 3.0 most cores sit idle and at 800mhz to conserve energy and lower heat, showing that I have way more CPU power and cores than I really need.

cat /proc/cpuinfo|grep MHz

cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 1200.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 1000.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 1800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000
cpu MHz        : 800.000

The Green Computing Effect

Because of this build I was able to retire 2 servers and combine them into one.  It is an ideal setup having so many SATA ports that I am able to have separate RAID arrays for different functions so IO does not become a factor.

I have a RAID10 array for my main OS and /home, a second array for media and a third for Virtual Servers.

I’ve saved a lot of money, power and also don’t have the hassle of maintaining more systems than I need, all in a rock solid build with more CPU power than I’ll need.

People are always surprised when I tell them what I am using and usually they have spent a lot more on a computer they don’t need and have a CPU that uses far more power (eg. 150+W CPU).

This is a great way to go green, save power and also consolidate unnecessary systems and make life easier so it’s been a win-win.

WIPO UDRP Domain Dispute Domain Seizure Experience

When providing hosting and domain registration services, there are known and various risks including fraud, DOS attacks etc…

Unfortunately in this case, it was customer based fraud and this is something almost impossible to predict or stop.  A customer from Brazil purchased a domain and hosting from us and then reported the transaction as unauthorized.  As many businesses will know, even rock solid proof that the purchase was authorized is often a futile attempt in fighting fraudulent credit card chargebacks.

After the chargeback we naturally canceled their hosting and moved the domain back into our name and it was parked as any standard domain to prevent them from making use of it.

How I learned about UDRP (Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy) & WIPO First Hand

UDRP is a sort of internet domain lawsuit challenging the rights of the current owner under the pretext that it contains trademarked words and/or is misleading and confusing over whatever brand or rights they claim to hold.  It can cost as little as $1000 USD to file a UDRP complaint and if successful the domain will be transferred to the complainant (assuming you do not file a lawsuit to fight it).  UDRP is something any TLD (Top Level Domain) under ICANN that you agree to accepting when registering any ICANN administered TLD (so virtually almost all TLDs).

According to Bradesco Bank and counsel from Brazil, the domain registered by our customer “ativacoestabelabradesco.com” allegedly contained one of their trademarked names in Portugese.  To us the domain was gibberish and a random string of characters that we didn’t recognize, and we had never heard of the name, likeness or bank in Brazil since none of us even speak Portugese or have ever visited Brazil.  They e-mailed our administrative contact with a notice of the UDRP filed with WIPO.

What is WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)?

It is a third party organization established through ICANN for UDRP disputes.  They act as a quasi-judicial court for domain name disputes and are supposed to be impartial, however a Google search reveals many outrageous complaints about “rogue” adjudicators or judges.  In essence and practice the adjudicators do not have to follow precedent cases or even apply all the rules as I believe my experience shows, there is a wide range of discretion for the adjudicator.

What does it take to win a UDRP Dispute?

Here is what WIPO says as of 2016-02-13 (note our dispute was back in 2013): https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/policy-2012-02-25-en#4

By definition the following tests must be met:

4. Mandatory Administrative Proceeding.

This Paragraph sets forth the type of disputes for which you are required to submit to a mandatory administrative proceeding. These proceedings will be conducted before one of the administrative-dispute-resolution service providers listed at www.icann.org/en/dndr/udrp/approved-providers.htm (each, a “Provider”).

a. Applicable Disputes. You are required to submit to a mandatory administrative proceeding in the event that a third party (a “complainant”) asserts to the applicable Provider, in compliance with the Rules of Procedure, that

(i) your domain name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the complainant has rights; and

(ii) you have no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the domain name; and

(iii) your domain name has been registered and is being used in bad faith.

In the administrative proceeding, the complainant must prove that each of these three elements are present.

b. Evidence of Registration and Use in Bad Faith. For the purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(iii), the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by the Panel to be present, shall be evidence of the registration and use of a domain name in bad faith:

(i) circumstances indicating that you have registered or you have acquired the domain name primarily for the purpose of selling, renting, or otherwise transferring the domain name registration to the complainant who is the owner of the trademark or service mark or to a competitor of that complainant, for valuable consideration in excess of your documented out-of-pocket costs directly related to the domain name; or

(ii) you have registered the domain name in order to prevent the owner of the trademark or service mark from reflecting the mark in a corresponding domain name, provided that you have engaged in a pattern of such conduct; or

(iii) you have registered the domain name primarily for the purpose of disrupting the business of a competitor; or

(iv) by using the domain name, you have intentionally attempted to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users to your web site or other on-line location, by creating a likelihood of confusion with the complainant’s mark as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of your web site or location or of a product or service on your web site or location.

c. How to Demonstrate Your Rights to and Legitimate Interests in the Domain Name in Responding to a Complaint. When you receive a complaint, you should refer to Paragraph 5 of the Rules of Procedure in determining how your response should be prepared. Any of the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by the Panel to be proved based on its evaluation of all evidence presented, shall demonstrate your rights or legitimate interests to the domain name for purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(ii):

(i) before any notice to you of the dispute, your use of, or demonstrable preparations to use, the domain name or a name corresponding to the domain name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services; or

(ii) you (as an individual, business, or other organization) have been commonly known by the domain name, even if you have acquired no trademark or service mark rights; or

(iii) you are making a legitimate noncommercial or fair use of the domain name, without intent for commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers or to tarnish the trademark or service mark at issue.

Continue reading “WIPO UDRP Domain Dispute Domain Seizure Experience”

Apple CEO Tim Cook’s Business Decision to Fight the FBI/Court Order

Mr. Cook has clearly made a strategic decision to be one of the first and few tech companies to challenge a court order of this magnitude, and if anyone can do it, it would be Apple.

Now to be clear there is a very serious matter in this case, and it is a tricky rope for investigators and business to get it right.  A crime has been committed and the authorities have presumably presented credible evidence and there is a court order, however the order is essentially unlimited access to all Apple devices.  The business (Apple) has two choices, co-operate or deal with the consequences of not doing so, in Apple’s case there is little financial consequence to not co-operate.  The opposite case could be made that Apple recognizes that if the public finds out that they complied that their encryption is as good as useless, their analysts probably put a price tag on the customer backlash and likely predicted a huge drop in AAPL shares.  Aside from the business case, it looks like now that the issue of privacy has come knocking on his doorstep, he has no choice but to take a bold and very public stand.

This is not a typical court order but is in effect a blanket and mass surveillance project.  Apple is basically being asked to make an app and backdoor to bypass their encryption, or at least disable the 10-try mechanism so they can try traditional bruteforce password methods.  Tim Cook stated very clearly that the ramifications would go far beyond this one case and validated his concerns by mentioning there would be little control over oversight over such a mechanism if Apple complied, which could mean the backdoor could be abused without due cause, as has been the case in the past with other surveillance.

One wonders if Apple has pondered its next move because it is unlikely that Apple can indefinitely delay or win the fight in the end.  They are legally under US jurisdiction and must win their challenge or comply.  Failing that Apple’s only option would be to move overseas/off-shore and this would be a huge blow for the US economy, tech sector and other companies may follow suit, such as McAfee’s weighing in on the issue and offer to crack the iPhone.

My philosophy has always been the US is a great place to do business with huge potential, but I always advise people to understand that any traffic transiting the US and especially data stored there is subject to US laws and regulations.

It will be interesting to watch where this goes, I have a feeling that most are cheering for Apple and Tim Cook at the moment and it is really no wonder with what is at stake.